Ruby is a powerful programming language that is widely used for developing web applications. One of its many useful features is the ability to format numbers in various ways. In this article, we will explore the different number formatting classes in Ruby and how they can be used to manipulate and display numbers in a desired format.

The first number formatting class we will look at is the Number class. This class provides methods for formatting numbers with different precision, such as specifying the number of decimal places or significant digits. For example, if we have a number 123.456, we can use the Number class to format it with two decimal places, resulting in 123.46. This class also allows us to add commas to large numbers for better readability, such as formatting 1000000 as 1,000,000.

Next, we have the Currency class, which is used for formatting numbers as currencies. This class takes into account the currency symbol, decimal separator, and thousands separator based on the specified locale. For instance, if we want to format the number 12345.67 as US dollars, the Currency class will display it as $12,345.67. This makes it easier to display monetary values in a standardized and easily understandable format.

The Percentage class is another useful formatting class in Ruby. As the name suggests, it is used for formatting numbers as percentages. This class multiplies the given number by 100 and adds a percent sign at the end. For example, if we want to display the number 0.75 as a percentage, the Percentage class will format it as 75%.

The Scientific class is used for formatting numbers in scientific notation. This is particularly useful when working with very large or very small numbers. The class takes the number and converts it into scientific notation, where the number is multiplied by a power of 10. For instance, if we have the number 1000000000, the Scientific class will format it as 1e+09.

Another helpful formatting class is the BigNum class. This class is specifically designed for handling very large numbers, which cannot be handled by the other formatting classes. The BigNum class formats numbers with a comma every three digits to make them more readable. For example, the number 1000000000000000 will be formatted as 1,000,000,000,000,000.

Lastly, we have the Precision class, which allows us to specify a specific precision for a number. This class is useful when we want to round off a number to a certain number of decimal places. For instance, if we have the number 3.14159265 and we want to round it off to 3 decimal places, the Precision class will format it as 3.142.

In conclusion, Ruby provides a variety of number formatting classes that can be used to manipulate and display numbers in different ways. From specifying decimal places to formatting as currencies or percentages, these classes make it easier for developers to work with numbers in a precise and organized manner. So the next time you are working with numbers in your Ruby code, remember to explore these formatting classes and see how they can enhance your programming experience.